LibrisEverybody Wants to be OK! 

Monday, 13 October 2014 00:00

Birth Control Options

Non-pharmaceuticaL and non-device options are available. Ask your doctor.

HORMONAL IUD

A small T-shaped frame that is replaced every 5 years.1 Contains a progestin, which makes it harder for sperm to enter the uterus.

BENEFITS
- 99.9% effective
- (0.09 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- Reversible
- Replace every 5 years
- May be associated with decreased menstrual pain
- May reduce menstrual flow

RISKS
- Side effects can include irregular or increased bleeding in the first month
- May cause weight gain and hormonal side effects such as depression, acne, headache, and breast tenderness
- May fall out
- Uterine perforation during insertion may occur in up to 0.16% of cases
- Ectopic pregnancy may occur in 0.02% to 0.25% of cases

SPERMICIDES

A chemical called nonoxynol-9 in cream, gel, foam, film, or suppository form used in conjunction with other methods of contraception, such as a condoms or diaphragm. Inserting spermicide in front of the cervix destroys sperm on contact.

BENEFITS
- 96% effective with perfect use (failure rate, 6%)
- 76% effective with typical use (failure rate, 26%)
- May provide lubrication when used with other barrier methods

RISKS
- Some users may be allergic to spermicides
- May increase risk of urinary tract infection
- Substantially high failure rates when used alone instead of in combination with other barrier methods, e.g., condom, diaphragm

THE PILL (Progestin-Only Pill)

A once daily oral contraceptive containing the hormone progestin that stops your ovaries from releasing an egg every month.

BENEFITS
- 99.5% effective with perfect use
- 90% effective with typical use (failure rates, 5-10%)
- May be suitable for smokers over age 35 or women over age 35 with migraines, women who have unwanted side effects with the combined pill, or women who are breastfeeding
- Does not appear to increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack

RISKS
- Side effects can include increased irregular bleeding and/or spotting in the first month
- Hormonal side effects such as headache, bloating, acne, and breast tenderness occur less commonly
- Not associated with any major morbidity

FEMALE CONDOM

A polyurethane sheath inserted into the vagina before sex that prevents sperm from entering the vagina.

BENEFITS
- 95% effective with perfect use (failure rate, 5%)
- 80% effective with typical use (failure rate, 20%)
- Helps prevent sexually transmitted infections

RISKS
- Requires knowledge and practice of proper insertion technique
- Makes noise during intercourse
- Inner ring may cause discomfort during intercourse
- Slippage can occur

DIAPHRAGM

A 50 -105 mm latex or silicone cap used in combination with a foam spermicide that covers the cervix and prevents sperm from getting inside.

BENEFITS
- 94% effective with perfect use (failure rate, 6%)
- 80% effective with typical use (failure rate. 20%)
- Helps prevent some sexually transmitted infections, and cervical dysplasia
- Can be inserted up to 6 hours before intercourse

RISKS
- May increase risk of persistent or recurrent urinary tract infections
- Requires knowledge and practice of proper insertion technique, and customized fitting to stay in place
- May cause reaction in users with latex allergy

THE PILL (combined pill)

A once daily oral contraceptive containing the hormones estrogen and progestin that stops your ovaries from releasing an egg every month/

BENEFITS
- 99.9% effective with perfect use
- 92% effective with typical use (failure rates, 3-8%)
- Reversible
- Makes periods more regular and decreases menstrual flow and menstrual cramping
- May reduce risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer

RISKS
- Side effects can include irregular bleeding, spotting, nausea, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and weight gain
- Not suitable for smokers over age 35 or women over age 35 with migraines
- May increase risk of blood clots

FERTILITY AWARENESS

Teaches women to determine the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. To avoid pregnancy, women avoid intercourse on fertile days.

BENEFITS
- 91-99% effective with perfect use (failure rate, 1-9%)
- 80% effective with typical use (failure rate, 20%)
- Ovulation is detected via observation of cervical mucus, body temperature, and position of cervix
- Inexpensive and natural

RISKS
- Requires diligence, strict compliance, and periodic abstinence
- May not be suitable for women with erratic/ irregular menstrual cycles

THE NEEDLE

A hormonal birth control method that contains a progestin. Administered by a needle in the muscle of the arm or buttocks every 12-13 weeks, it stops your ovaries from releasing an egg every month.

BENEFITS
- 99.7% effective
- (less than 0.3 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- Reversible
- Administered every 12 weeks
- May reduce risk of endometrial cancer

RISKS
- May cause irregular menstrual bleeding or cessation of periods
- May cause weight gain and hormonal side effects like headache, acne, decreased libido, nausea and breast tenderness
- May take up to 9 months after the last injection for fertility to return

THE PATCH

A 4x4 cm adhesive patch that continuously releases estrogen and a progestin into the bloodstream, which stops the ovaries from releasing an egg.

BENEFITS
- 99.3% effective with perfect use
- (0.7 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- 99.12% effective with typical use
- (0.88 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- Reversible
- Weekly contraception
- Non-contraceptive benefits are assumed to be similar to those seen in the combined pill; however, these potential benefits have not been assessed in studies to date

RISKS
- Risks are assumed to be similar to combined pill
- Side effects can include irregular bleeding, spotting, nausea, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and weight gain
- Not suitable for smokers over age 35 or women over age 35 with migraines
- May increase risk of blood clots
- May detach from skin

MALE CONDOM

A sheath that is rolled over the penis to prevent semen from entering the vagina.

BENEFITS
- 97% effective with perfect use (failure rate, 3%)
- 86% effective with typical use (failure rate, 14%)
- Helps prevent sexually transmitted infections and cervical dysplasia
- May help prevent premature ejaculation

RISKS
- May cause decreased sensitivity and loss of erection
- Requires instruction for both partners and knowledge of use
- May break or slip
- May cause reaction/irritation in users with latex allergy
- Not always available when needed

THE RING

A flexible, 54 mm plastic ring that is inserted into the vagina where it slowly releases estrogen and progestin for three weeks. Prevents pregnancy by stopping the ovaries from releasing an egg.

BENEFITS
- 99.23% effective with perfect use
- (0.4-0.77 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- 98.82% effective with typical use
- (0.65-1.18 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- Reversible
- Monthly contraception
- Non-contraceptive benefits are assumed to be simitar to those seen in the combined pill; however, these potential benefits have not been assessed in studies to date

RISKS
- Risks are assumed to be simitar to combined pill
- Side effects can include irregular bleeding, spotting, nausea, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and weight gain
- Not suitable for smokers over age 35 or women over age 35 with migraines
- May increase risk of blood clots
- May cause vaginal discomfort or irritation
- May fall out

COPPER IUD

A small, T-shaped device with a copper wire that is inserted into the uterus which changes the chemistry in the uterus and destroys sperm.

BENEFITS
- 98.74% effective
- (1.26 pregnancies per 100 women per year]
- Reversible
- Can be replaced as per product labeling (e.g., 30 months or 5 years, depending on brand)

RISKS
- Side effects can include irregular or increased bleeding in the first month
- May cause menstrual pain
- May fall out
- Uterine perforation during insertion may occur in up to 0.16% of cases
- Ectopic pregnancy may occur in 0.02% to 0.25% of cases

VASECTOMY

A permanent option for men that surgically blocks the sperm duct and prevents sperm from entering the ejaculate.

BENEFITS
- 97.8% effective
- (0-2.2 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- For men seeking permanent contraception

RISKS
- Side effects include local pain and scrotal bruising and swelling

FEMALE STERILIZATION[TUBAL LIGATION]

A permanent option that surgically disconnects the fallopian tubes, so that the egg never meets the sperm.

BENEFITS
- Over 99% effective
- (less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women per year)3
- For women seeking permanent contraception

RISKS
- Short term complications after surgery may include abdominal and shoulder tip pain and bruising, anesthesia-related risks, bleeding, and infection, or damage to bowel, bladder, and blood vessels

1. Black A, Francoeur D, Rowe T. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines: Canadian Contraception Consensus. JOGC March 2004; Part 2 of 3: 219-54.
2. Black A, Francoeur D, Rowe T. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines: Canadian Contraception Consensus. JOGC April 2004; Part 3 of 3: 347-87.
3. World Health Organization, https://apps. who.int/rht/documents/FPP94-2/FPP94-2. htm#How effective is female sterilization?
4. Fisher, William A., Black, Amanda. Contraception in Canada: a review of method choices, characteristics, adherence and approaches to counseling, CMAJ, March 27, 2007: 176-7.

Except where noted, all information provided by The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) at http://www.sexualityandu.ca

Fore more information, see the attachments below.

Read 1614 times

Contact Us

1278 The Queensway

Medical Center
416-848-9795

Dental Center
416-848-9790

Diagnostic Center
416-253-5111

Pharmacy
416-259-4747

Facebook

YouTube